LIFEWORK Study: Table 1, Key topics

Key topics in the LIFEWORK baseline questionnaire and the models used to assess environmental and occupational exposures
Topic Items
Characteristics Age, sex, marital status, country of birth, height, weight
Socioeconomic Employment status, education
Lifestyle Smoking, alcohol use, physical activity *)
Housing characteristics Bedroom floor, position of the bedroom relative to the street
Residential history Full residential history of addresses lived at for at least 12 months
Occupational history AMIGO/EPIC-NL: full history of jobs performed for at least 6 months (job title, type of company, average number of hours per week), shift work (ever shift work and if permanent or rotating shift system) *)
The Nightingale Study: full history of jobs performed for at least 6 months (job title, type of company, average number of hours per week, shift work, physical activity), shift work (rotation, frequency, calendar years), chronotype (MEQ) [60] *)
EMF exposure Current and historical mobile phone use, cordless phone use and internet mobile phone use †), job tasks or use of equipment likely to lead to high EMF exposure
Health Current Health Physical and mental well-being (SF-12), headache (HIT-6), [16] migraine (ID-migraine), [17] sleep quality (MOS sleep scale), [18] memory problems, hearing problems, tinnitus
Past: doctor-assessed symptoms and diseases, and age at diagnosis for conditions and events including diabetes, cardiovascular events, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, asthma *)
Reproductive health (women): parity, birth outcomes, hormone use *)
Modelled exposures
Geospatial model Environmental exposures
NISMap [23], [24] RF-EMF from mobile phone base stations
ESCAPE LUR model [26], [27] Air pollutants (PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10, NO2, OPdtt)
NDVI [25] Green space measure
STAMINA [28] Traffic noise exposure (eg, Lden)
LOCATUS [29] Built environment (eg, number of fast food restaurants and sport facilities in surrounding area)
Job-exposure matrix Occupational exposures
ALOHA+JEM [32], [33] Dust (biological, mineral dust), pesticides (all pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides), solvents (total solvents, aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents)
DOM-JEM [34], [35] Diesel motor exhaust fumes, asbestos, chromium, nickel, PAHs, silica, animal dust, biological dust, endotoxin
Shock-JEM [36] Electric shocks at work
ELF-MF JEM [61] Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields
  • * Items differed slightly between AMIGO, EPIC-NL and the Nightingale questionnaires
  • More detailed information can be found in Schüz et al. [14]
  • AMIGO, Occupational and Environmental Health Cohort Study; ELF-MF, extremely low-frequency magnetic fields; EMF, electromagnetic fields; EPIC-NL, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition in the Netherlands; ESCAPE, European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects; HIT, Headache Impact Test; ID-migraine, identification of migraine; JEM, job-exposure matrix; Lden, day-evening-night weighted average traffic noise level for 2011; LUR, land use regression; MEQ, Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire; MOS, Medical Outcomes Study; NDVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NO2, nitrogen dioxide; OPdtt, oxidative potential; PAH, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; PM10, particulate matter with diameter  = 10 µm; RF-EMF, radiofrequency electromagnetic fields; SF, Short Form Health Survey; STAMINA, Standard Model Instrumentation for Noise Assessments.
  • 14 Schüz J, Elliott P, Auvinen A, et al. An international prospective cohort study of mobile phone users and health (Cosmos): design considerations and enrolment. Cancer Epidemiol 2011;35:37-43.
  • 16 Kosinski M, Bayliss MS, Bjorner JB, et al. A six-item short-form survey for measuring headache impact: the HIT-6. Qual Life Res 2003;12:963-74.
  • 17 Lipton RB, Dodick D, Sadovsky R, et al. A self-administered screener for migraine in primary care. Neurology 2003;61:375-82.
  • 18 Hays RD, Martin SA, Sesti AM, et al. Psychometric properties of the medical outcomes study sleep measure. Sleep Med 2005;6:41-4.19.
  • 23 Beekhuizen J, Vermeulen R, Kromhout H, et al. Geospatial modelling of electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations. Sci Total Environ 2013;445-446:202-9.
  • 24 Beekhuizen J, Vermeulen R, van Eijsden M, et al. Modelling indoor electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile phone base stations for epidemiological studies. Environ Int 2014;67:22-6.
  • 25 X Rhew IC, Vander Stoep A, Kearney A, et al. Validation of the normalized difference vegetation index as a measure of neighborhood greenness. Ann Epidemiol 2011;21:946-52.
  • 26 Eeftens M, Beelen R, de Hoogh K, et al. Development of Land Use Regression models for PM(2.5), PM(2.5) absorbance, PM(10) and PM(coarse) in 20 European study areas; results of the ESCAPE project. Environ Sci Technol 2012;46:11195-205.
  • 27 Beelen R, Hoek G, Vienneau D, et al. Development of NO2 and NOx land use regression models for estimating air pollution exposure in 36 study areas in Europe - The ESCAPE project. Atmos Environ 2013;72:10-23.
  • 28 Scheurs EM, Jabben J, Verheijen ENG. STAMINA-Model description STAMINA - Model description. Rep.680740003/201. 2010
  • 29 Locatus. Locatus. (accessed 17 Aug 2016).
  • 32 de Vocht F, Zock JP, Kromhout H, et al. Comparison of self-reported occupational exposure with a job exposure matrix in an international community-based study on asthma. Am J Ind Med 2005;47:434-42.
  • 33 Matheson MC, Benke G, Raven J, et al. Biological dust exposure in the workplace is a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 2005;60:645-51.
  • 34 Peters S, Vermeulen R, Olsson A, et al. Development of an exposure measurement database on five lung carcinogens (ExpoSYN) for quantitative retrospective occupational exposure assessment. Ann Occup Hyg 2012;56:70-9.
  • 35 Peters S, Vermeulen R, Cassidy A, et al. Comparison of exposure assessment methods for occupational carcinogens in a multi-centre lung cancer case-control study. Occup Environ Med 2011;68:148-53.
  • 36 Huss A, Vermeulen R, Bowman JD, et al. Electric shocks at work in Europe: development of a job exposure matrix. Occup Environ Med 2013;70:261-7.
  • 60 Roenneberg T, Wirz-Justice A, Merrow M. Life between clocks: daily temporal patterns of human chronotypes. J Biol Rhythms 2003;18:80-90.
  • 61 Koeman T, Slottje P, Kromhout H, et al. Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort study. Occup Environ Med 2013;70(6):402-7.